David DeSteno: The Morality of Meditation


Originally published by David DeSteno in The New York Times on July 5, 2013.

MEDITATION is fast becoming a fashionable tool for improving your mind. With mounting scientific evidence that the practice can enhance creativity, memory and scores on standardized intelligence tests, interest in its practical benefits is growing. A number of “mindfulness” training programs, like that developed by the engineer Chade-Meng Tan at Google, and conferences like Wisdom 2.0 for business and tech leaders, promise attendees insight into how meditation can be used to augment individual performance, leadership and productivity.

This is all well and good, but if you stop to think about it, there’s a bit of a disconnect between the (perfectly commendable) pursuit of these benefits and the purpose for which meditation was originally intended. Gaining competitive advantage on exams and increasing creativity in business weren’t of the utmost concern to Buddha and other early meditation teachers. As Buddha himself said, “I teach one thing and one only: that is, suffering and the end of suffering.” For Buddha, as for many modern spiritual leaders, the goal of meditation was as simple as that. The heightened control of the mind that meditation offers was supposed to help its practitioners see the world in a new and more compassionate way, allowing them to break free from the categorizations (us/them, self/other) that commonly divide people from one another.

But does meditation work as promised? Is its originally intended effect — the reduction of suffering — empirically demonstrable?

To put the question to the test, my lab, led in this work by the psychologist Paul Condon, joined with the neuroscientist Gaëlle Desbordes and the Buddhist lama Willa Miller to conduct an experiment whose publication is forthcoming in the journal Psychological Science. We recruited 39 people from the Boston area who were willing to take part in an eight-week course on meditation (and who had never taken any such course before). We then randomly assigned 20 of them to take part in weekly meditation classes, which also required them to practice at home using guided recordings. The remaining 19 were told that they had been placed on a waiting list for a future course.

After the eight-week period of instruction, we invited the participants to the lab for an experiment that purported to examine their memory, attention and related cognitive abilities. But as you might anticipate, what actually interested us was whether those who had been meditating would exhibit greater compassion in the face of suffering. To find out, we staged a situation designed to test the participants’ behavior before they were aware that the experiment had begun.

WHEN a participant entered the waiting area for our lab, he (or she) found three chairs, two of which were already occupied. Naturally, he sat in the remaining chair. As he waited, a fourth person, using crutches and wearing a boot for a broken foot, entered the room and audibly sighed in pain as she leaned uncomfortably against a wall. The other two people in the room — who, like the woman on crutches, secretly worked for us — ignored the woman, thus confronting the participant with a moral quandary. Would he act compassionately, giving up his chair for her, or selfishly ignore her plight?

The results were striking. Although only 16 percent of the nonmeditators gave up their seats — an admittedly disheartening fact — the proportion rose to 50 percent among those who had meditated. This increase is impressive not solely because it occurred after only eight weeks of meditation, but also because it did so within the context of a situation known to inhibit considerate behavior: witnessing others ignoring a person in distress — what psychologists call the bystander effect — reduces the odds that any single individual will help. Nonetheless, the meditation increased the compassionate response threefold.

Although we don’t yet know why meditation has this effect, one of two explanations seems likely. The first rests on meditation’s documented ability to enhance attention, which might in turn increase the odds of noticing someone in pain (as opposed to being lost in one’s own thoughts). My favored explanation, though, derives from a different aspect of meditation: its ability to foster a view that all beings are interconnected. The psychologist Piercarlo Valdesolo and I have found that any marker of affiliation between two people, even something as subtle as tapping their hands together in synchrony, causes them to feel more compassion for each other when distressed. The increased compassion of meditators, then, might stem directly from meditation’s ability to dissolve the artificial social distinctions — ethnicity, religion, ideology and the like — that divide us.

Supporting this view, recent findings by the neuroscientists Helen Weng, Richard Davidson and colleagues confirm that even relatively brief training in meditative techniques can alter neural functioning in brain areas associated with empathic understanding of others’ distress — areas whose responsiveness is also modulated by a person’s degree of felt associations with others.

So take heart. The next time you meditate, know that you’re not just benefiting yourself, you’re also benefiting your neighbors, community members and as-yet-unknown strangers by increasing the odds that you’ll feel their pain when the time comes, and act to lessen it as well.

David DeSteno is a professor of psychology at Northeastern University, where he directs the Social Emotions Group. He is the author of the forthcoming book “The Truth About Trust: How It Determines Success in Life, Love, Learning, and More.”

My Reasons for Meditating

Stress stemming from work, family and relationships can definitely take its toll, even on people that are the coolest of cucumbers. The fact of the matter is that our hectic lifestyles make it nearly impossible to stay cool, calm and collected. Although I’ve always tried to come off as a tranquil person, I used to fall victim to the anxiety that life often brought on many, many occasions. That’s when I discovered how meditation could save my sanity.

I haven’t always been a meditation advocate. In fact, incorporating meditation into my routine is something that I have done for less than a year – but this is a hobby that I will never give up. I must admit, beginning meditation for the first time was very difficult; it was hard for me to concentrate and remain patient for the benefits I was told I would reap in by doing this on a daily basis. It seemed really easy to give up and continue living my balancing act of a life where things were equally glass half empty and half full. I envied those that I knew who didn’t let anything get to them – whether it was their boss overloading them at work, a friend making snarky comments or issues in their relationship – nothing seemed to faze them.

Here I was, a woman who became irate just from driving behind someone who was going 5 miles under the speed limit. Yes, that was the old me. I didn’t meditate because I convinced myself that I didn’t have enough time. Well, let me tell you that is 100% false for everyone. Nobody can say they don’t have enough time to meditate and should be willing to sacrifice 10 minutes to better their mental health and overall well-being. After I got over the difficult hump of concentration during the first couple of weeks, I started experiencing euphoria just by examining my breath and truly believing that I should not worry about the things I couldn’t control.

How and when you meditate is up to you. I know people who meditate first thing in the morning, and I also know people who do it on their lunch hour or right before they go to bed. You can do it in silence, with ambient music or a recording of a soothing voice filling your mind with positivity. As for the position, you can sit or you can lay down on the floor or bed.

As for me, I like to lie in my bed and listen to music; sometimes I’ll lay on the floor and raise my legs parallel against the wall. I also choose to meditate at night because I go into such a relaxing trance that I sometimes fall asleep and don’t wake up until my alarm goes off in the morning.

For those of you who want to start meditating but are intimidated by it or are discouraged because it doesn’t seem like a possibility for you, here are a few tips to help ease you into the process:

1. Find a comfortable place in your home or outside if you prefer. Take the first few minutes and allow your muscles to just relax – don’t move them, just allow your limbs to rest peacefully.

2. Close your eyes to avoid distraction and examine your breath. At some point you’ll be able to meditate with your eyes open and still remain totally focused on your bliss and breath. This may take time, so don’t rush yourself; in fact, there is nothing wrong with always closing your eyes if you find it relaxes you more.

3. Use sound. Beginning to meditate in silence can cause frustration and discourage you from continuing your meditative routine. There are DVDs, CDs, websites and multiple free apps available for smartphones that have guided meditation backed up by soothing tunes to help you remain focused and tranquil. Some of my favorite apps are Qi Gong Meditation and Buddhist Meditation. Both of those apps come equipped with positive affirmations and reminders so you don’t forget to meditate.

Happy “Oming” everyone!